Bibliography of Crafts and Trades in Colonial Virginia


Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. General
  3. Description and Travel
  4. Pictorial
  5. Jamestown
  6. Crafts and Trades

Introduction

“Williamsburg was the thriving capital of Virginia when the dream of American freedom and independence was taking shape and the colony was a rich and powerful land stretching west to the Mississippi River and north to the Great Lakes. For 81 formative years, from 1699-1780, Williamsburg was the political, cultural and educational center of what was then the largest, most populous and most influential of the American Colonies.”
http://www.history.org/Foundation/cwhistory.cfm

“While most people in Virginia engaged in agricultural work, there were a small number engaged in non-agricultural trades. Approximately 140 different non-agricultural occupations were practiced in Virginia. Many of these trades were practiced in Williamsburg, and some of these colonial-era trades are still practiced in the Eighteenth Century manner in Colonial Williamsburg today.”
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/tradsamp.cfm

“During the third quarter of the 1700s two hundred twenty-eight identifiable artisans worked in Williamsburg in 44 different occupations. In 1775 about 25% of the white male population over the age of sixteen were skilled workmen. There were also many slaves, apprentices, indentured servants and free journeymen who never appear in the records but worked with the identified tradesmen. However, labor remained in short supply, Virginians still imported the vast majority of the products they needed from England, and tradesmen frequently invested in land while continuing to practice a trade.”
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/tradesum.cfm

“In Colonial America, the conventional path to a livelihood as a craftsman, such as printer, wigmaker, or bookbinder, began with an apprenticeship. This meant living and working in the shop of a master craftsman for at least 4-5 years. After the apprenticeship, the apprentice became a journeyman, which meant he had all the skills of the craft and could go town to town and work in the shop of a master craftsman. Sooner or later the journeyman opened his own shop as a master craftsman.”
http://www.suite101.com/content/life-as-an-apprentice-in-colonial-america-a143732

General

“The first emigrants to America had occupations concerned primarily with simple, basic survival in the New World. They were, for the most part, skilled laborers, who could make things most of us now only dabble in as hobbies. Some occupational names were self-explanatory such as a blacksmith, locksmith, and gunsmith. Of course there were also occupations with names that are recognizable today—coroner, bookkeeper, barber, cabinet-maker, weaver, baker, brick-layer, accountant, printer and musician.”
http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~sam/occupation.html

Colonial America Timeline with links (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~riss/hrtg/coltmln.html)

The Crafts of Williamsburg by Wamsley, James S.Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1982 V 609 W
Introduction about craftsmen and the apprentice system. Pictures of craftsmen in colonial craftshops in Colonial Williamsburg. Printer, Gunsmith, Cabinet-maker, Silversmith, Engraver, Boot and Shoemaker, Saddle and Harness maker, Blacksmith, Founder, Cooper, Musical Instrument Maker, Wheelwright, Building Trades, Miller, Baker, Wigmaker, Milliner (Hatmaker), Domestic Crafts and Textiles: Dying, Weaving, Spinning, Candlemaking, Basketmaking, Cooking and Food Preparation, Laundering.

Early American Crafts and Tradesby Stockham, Peter, ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1976 VREF 680 E
Wool-comber, Spinner, Waterman, Basket-maker, Hat-maker, Jeweler, Bricklayer, Carpenter, Cooper, Stone-Mason, Sawyer, Smith, Shipwright, Mariner, Currier, Apothecary, Baker, Straw-Hat-Maker, Soap-Boiler, Plumber, Dyer, Potter, Type-Founder.

Early American Crafts and TradesColonial Crafts. Series: Historic Communities. Kalman, Bobbie. New York: Crabtree Publishing Co., 1992 VREF 680 K 1992
A close-up view of how people lived more than two hundred years ago. Colorful photos, many taken by Bobbie Kalman herself at restored historic villages across the country, help support the fascinating information. Colonial Crafts introduces young readers to the craftspeople who created useful works of art by hand, many of which have lasted more than two hundred years. Children will find out how the artisans learned their trades through many years of apprenticeship, as their masters did before them. Children will have fun learning about:

  • early homes and the settler community
  • what people wore and the crafts they made
  • how settlers made their living
  • how they spent their leisure time
  • the values, customs, and traditions of the early settlers

Simple text with pictures. Leatherworkers, Cabinet-makers, Cooper, Wheelwright, Gunsmith, Blacksmith, Founder, Silversmith, Papermaker (Printer and Bookbinder), Milliner, Wigmaker, Building Trades, Home Industries.
**A review of Colonial Crafts (http://www.powells.com/biblio?isbn=0865054908)

Colonial Craftsmen and the Beginnings of American Industry by Tunis, Edwin. World Pub, 1965 VREF 680 T
Discusses and illustrates, using fairly full descriptions, the crafts and trades of the Colonial period. It is divided into four areas: New World, New Ways; Country Work; Town Shops; and Bespoke Work.

Colonial Virginians at Play by Carson, Jane. Williamsburg, Va. Colonial Williamsburg, 1965 VREF 790.9755 C
Research from available manuscript and printed sources—diaries and letters, account books and inventories, newspaper advertisements and county court records. On the frontier, Virginia colonists found their diversion in their work—hunting and fishing, riding and boating, shooting matches, social gatherings at home and church and county court. Racing, cockfighting, theatre, cards and games, weddings and barbeques, wrestling and boxing, fencing, cricket, etc.

Virginians at Home: Family Life in the Eighteenth Century by Morgan, Edmund S. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1952 VREF 975.5 M
Williamsburg in America Series. Daily life of planters, farmers, women, slaves, craftsmen. “What was it like to be a schoolboy, a bride, a craftsman, or a master of a great plantation? What was the lot of slaves or of indentured servants laboring in the tobacco fields and workshops? During the Eighteenth Century…how did Virginians keep house, learn a trade, or spend their leisure time?”

The Story of Virginia’s First Century (with 27 illustrations) by Stanard, Mary Newton. J.P. Lippincott, circa 1928 VREF 975.5 S
A complete story of Seventeenth Century Virginia. Includes pictures of royal personages.

Domestic Life in Virginia in the Seventeenth Century by Jester, Annie Lash. Williamsburg, Va.: The Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957 V 975.5 S no. 17
Talks about domestic life to include hospitality, fashion, planters, etc. Has some pictures.

James Geddy and Sons: Colonial Craftsmen by Hume, Ivor Noel. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1970 VREF 975.5425
Metal working in the following crafts: Gunsmith, Brass Founder, Silversmith.

A Brief and True Report for the Traveler Concerning Williamsburg in Virginia by R. G. Gent, an Inhabitant of the Place. Reprint. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, 1936 VREF 975.5425 G

Description and Travel

Travelers in Tidewater Virginia by Carson, Jane. Colonial Williamsburg, Va.: University Press of Virginia, circa 1965 VREF 917.55 C
“Williamsburg Research Studies is a series of specialized reports prepared in the research program of Colonial Williamsburg [with this initiative in mind]: to supply the day-to-day information essential to the accurate preservation and restoration of Virginia’s Colonial capital.”

We Were There: Descriptions of Williamsburg, 1699-1859 by Carson, Jane. Colonial Williamsburg, 1965 VREF 917.55425

Official Guide to Colonial Williamsburg by Olmert, Michael. Drawings by Peter C. Turner. Maps by Louis Luedtke. Williamsburg, Va.: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1985 VREF 917.55425 O
Descriptions of buildings; information on shopping, lodging, and dining; easy-to-follow maps.

Pictorial

Colonial Williamsburg Official Guidebook (with large Guide-Map). Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, 1955 VREF 917.5425 C
Descriptions and illustrations of more than one hundred Dwelling Houses, Shops, and Publick Buildings. Also has a large Guide-Map.

A Pictorial Booklet on Early Jamestown Commodities and Industries by Hudson, J. Paul. Williamsburg, Va.: The Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957 V 975.5 S no. 23 Selected Bibliography, p. 78.
Makes reference to all colonial trades and has pictures to accompany them: Boatbuilding; Timbering; Barrels and Casks (Coopering); Potash and Soap-Ashes; Pitch and Tar; Iron; Jamestown Blacksmith Shop; Glassmaking; Furs and Hides; Building; Tobacco; Wine; Silk; Pottery; Metalworking; Fishing; Brewing; Herbs and Medicinal Plants; Furniture; Box-Maker and Turner; Carriages and Wheeled Vehicles; Spinning; Bread-Baking; Harvesting Ice.

Jamestown

Adventurers of Purse and Person: Virginia 1607-1624/5 3rd edition by Meyer, Virginia M. and Dorman, John Frederick, eds. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1987 VREF 929.3755 ADVE 1987
“Material, both biographical and geneaological, collected to be enfolded with the history of Virginia in the period 1607-1624/5.”

A Pictorial Booklet on Early Jamestown Commodities and Industries by Hudson, J. Paul Williamsburg, Va.: The Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957 VREF 975.5 S no. 23
Many American industries were born in Jamestown: boatbuilding, timbering, glassmaking, tobacco-cultivation, wine-making, iron-smelting, and the making of pitch, tar, potash and soap ashes were carried out. There was also production of pottery, bricks, and tile of considerable volume.

The Jamestown Adventure: Accounts of the Virginia Colony, 1605-1614 by Southern, Ed., ed. Winston-Salem, N.C. : John F. Blair, c2004 VREF 975.5425 J 2004
“This volume collects contemporary accounts of the first successful colony in the first thirteen United States.”

Jamestown Rediscovery has 6 volumes. This series is by William M. Kelso.
Archaeological efforts to find objects and preserve Jamestown. “This research also seeks signs of craftsmen’s activities within and surrounding the early fort and evidence of the influence of the native Algonquians on crafts, buildings, lifestyle, and foodways.”

VREF 975.5425 K
1995 I
1996 II
1997 III
1998 IV
1999 V
2000 VI

James Towne in the Words of Contemporaries by Riley, Edward M. And Hatch, Charles E. Jr., eds. Washington DC: National Park Service, 1955. VREF 975.5425 R 1955
“A presentation of excerpts and selections from records, laws, accounts and descriptions made by men who lived in, or were associated with, James Towne.”

The Journals of Captain John Smith by Thompson, John M., ed. Washington, DC: National Geographic Adventure Classics, 2007 VREF 975.5425 S 2007
A biography of Jamestown. “In 1607 a group of some 100 colonists began building the first English colony in America on the banks of Virginia’s James River.”

Crafts and trades

Accountants:

An accountant is one that keeps, audits, and inspects the financial records of individuals or business concerns and prepares financial and tax reports.
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/accountant

Apprentices form Christ’s Hospital Make Good in America by Gill, Harold. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation XI, No. 1, Autumn 1988, pp. 15-18 VREF 975.5425 C

A Thing Without Parallel: Christ’s Hospital and America by Morpurgo, J. E. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XI, No. 1, Autumn 1988, pp. 7-14 VREF 975.5425 C

Extraordinary Circumstances: The Journey of a Corporate Whistleblower. Cooper, Cynthia. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, c2008. B Cooper 2008

Apothecaries:
Colonial apothecaries practiced as a doctor does; prescribed medicine; trained apprentices; performed surgeries; and acted as man-midwives. They also often mixed their own medicines using herbs
Taken from: http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradeapo.cfm).

Colonial American Medicine by Terkel, Susan Neiburg. New York: Franklin Watts, c1993. J610.9 T 1993

The Art and Mystery of the Apothecary by Kipps, Robin. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XXVIII, No. 4, Autumn 2006, pp. 40-43. VREF 975.5425 C

Fevers, Agues, and Cures: Medical Life in Old Virginiaby Savitt, Todd L. Virginia Historical Society, c1990 VREF 610.9 S 1990

Physick: The Professional Practice of Medicine in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1740-1775. by Cotner, Sharon et. al. Williamsburg, Va: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, c2003 VREF 610.9755 P 2003

Colonial Williamsburg Article about Apothecaries:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/apoth.cfm

Architects and Building / Housewrights / Sawyers / Woodwrights

Architects: an architect is a person who designs buildings on paper and gives it to the builder. Some things he makes are drawings for barns, town halls, houses, etc. Taken from: http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/forestoakms/site%20pages/academics/social%20studies/colonisl%20times/archetect.html

Housewrights: a housewright is somebody who built houses in Colonial times. They are similar to today’s carpenter, because they both built houses, but housewrights also chopped down trees, carved the wood into boards, and shaped the boards to fit properly together to frame a house.
Taken from: http://multiage123gerie.tripod.com/

Sawyers: a sawyer is a person that is employed in sawing wood. Sawyers aided the housewright and made the smaller timbers used in the floors and the walls.

Woodwrights: a woodwright is a person who works with wood using tools such as a chisel, etc.

Virginia Architecture in the Seventeenth Century. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp, 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 11

Tools: Working Wood in 18th Century America by Gaynor, James N. and Hagedorn, Nancy L. Williamsburg, Va.: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1993 VREF 684.082 G 1993

Early Architecture of the South by Mullins, Lisa C. and Underhill, Roy. Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1987 VREF 720.975 E 1987

An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape by Ed. By Lounsbury, Carl R. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994 VREF 720.975 I 1999

Domestic Colonial Architecture of Tidewater, Virginia by Waterman, Thomas Tilestone and Barrows, John A. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969 VREF 728 W 1969

The Woodwright’s Companion: Exploring Traditional Woodcraft by Underhill, Roy. Chapel Hill: Univ of NC Press, c1983 VREF 684.08 U

The Woodwright’s Apprentice: Twenty Favorite Projects from the Woodwright’s Shop by Underhill, Roy. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, c1996 VREF 684.08 U 1996

Raising the Roof the Old-Fashioned Way by Barrett, Wayne. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 2, Winter 1985, p. 23 VREF 975.5425 C

Go to: VREF 728
There are many books on the homes of the Colonial South in this area. Most have many illustrations.

Bakers
In the Colonial times most breads were baked in the home, either by a family member or by a servant. There were a few places that did have bake shops. Other than breads their products depended on what was on hand and what was in season. The baker depended on others for the raw materials (flour, sugar, grain, fruit) also for wood for the ovens (usually dutch ovens). Taken from: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_life_of_a_colonial_baker#ixzz1EQdIT035
Once a town had an inn, it usually could support a bakery. The baker’s dozen began because bakers short-weighted many customers.

Colonial Era Commercial Bakers
Taken from: http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodcolonial.html#colonialbakeries

Barber and Wigmaker
Barber and Wigmaker: Made wigs and hairpieces for ladies and gentlemen; cut and dressed hair; sold soaps, perfumes, powders, tonics and lice cures; trained apprentices; offered immersion bathing facilities. The barber not only cut hair but did minor surgery. The hair was used for the wigs, the fashion of the time.
Taken from: http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradewig.cfm

Wigmaker in 18th Century Williamsburg by Tattershall, Edwards. Williamsburg, Va.VREF 680 C

The Wigmaker by Fisher, Leonard Everett. Watts, 1965 VREF 679 F

Basketmaker:
One who made baskets.

Colonial Williamsburg about Basketmakers
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradebas.cfm

Blacksmith:
The blacksmith made and fixed tools, pots, and other useful items. These items were made out of iron. Blacksmiths needed many tools in order to hold and mold the hot metal they used to work with. The blacksmith would work in a large room with a forge which was a big fireplace. In the middle of the room there was a heavy block of metal called an anvil. The blacksmith would use it to hold the hot metal while he shaped it into a tool or a cooking utensil. Every settlement had a blacksmith because he was a very useful member. The blacksmith was also a dentist and he had only one cure for a toothache. He pulled out the tooth that hurt. Taken from: http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/blacksmith.htm

The blacksmith has been called the most important of the colonial artisans […]The blacksmith worked with iron to make and repair tools people needed for farming, household tasks, and other trades. Obviously, there was no shortage of work for this tradesman. When roads were established in the colonies, this smith also fixed carts and wagons. Other craftsmen greatly respected him because they all depended on his work.
Taken from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/22266/the_colonial_blacksmith_the_most_important.html

The Blacksmiths by Fisher, Leonard Everett. New York: Franklin Watts, 1976 VREF J 682 F

The Blacksmith by Kalman, Bobbie. New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2002 VREF J 682 K 2002

Reconstructing the Anderson Blacksmith Shop by Underhill, Roy. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 4, Summer 1986, pp. 5-13 VREF 975.5425 C

The Blacksmith’s Ballet by Crews, Ed. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XXI, No. 5, October/November 1999, pp. 40-44 VREF 975.5425 C

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Blacksmith by Wilmore, Kathy. New York: PowerKids Press, 2000 VREF J 682 W

Blacksmith in 18th Century Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg Va. VREF 680 C

Colonial Williamsburg article about Blacksmiths:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/blksmith.cfm

Bookbinding:
The craft of making books by attaching paper together and adding a cover. Bookbinding was a highly specialized trade in colonial America, requiring ample time and craftsmanship. Bookbinders relied on an assortment of hand-held tools. Most of these were used to imprint or tool decorative emblems, patterns and words on book covers. In the colonial era books, relatively scarce, were treasured possessions built to endure, educate and entertain.
Taken from:
http://www.ehow.com/list_7446178_colonial-bookbinder-tools.html

Bookbinding in Colonial Virginia by Samford, C. Clement. Williamsburg, Va.: University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, c 1966 VREF 686.3 S

The Bookbinder in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg: An Account of His Life and Times, and of His Craft Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Va VREF 680 C

Colonial Williamsburg article about Printers and Bookbinders:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/printer.cfm

Brazier:
A brazier is one who works in brass.
Taken from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/brazier

Brickmaker:
In 18th-century Virginia, slaves, poor unskilled free laborers, and sometimes indentured or convict servants practiced the brickmaking trade. In large yards owned and overseen by a master and in family-owned businesses, men, women, and children participated in the trade […]Wealthy landowners building a plantation home may have assigned a number of their slaves to make bricks for the new structure. Thomas Jefferson's slaves made the bricks for Monticello. His journal noted a crew of three laborers assisting one molder could mold 2,000 bricks in a day.

Taken from:
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradebri.cfm
Colonial Williamsburg article about Brickmakers
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradebri.cfm

Carpenters and Cabinet Makers and Joiners:
Carpenter: In a century when most structures were built from wood, no tradesmen were more useful than the carpenter and joiner. The main business of the colonial carpenter was to cut and join timber and boards into sturdy wooden homes and shops. Joinery is one of the specializations of carpentry. As Williamsburg blossomed, the demand for new homes, shops, outbuildings stables, sheds, and their repair grew at a rapid pace.
Taken from:
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradecar.cfm
“Colonial Williamsburg Workers Construct Buildings of the Past”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/spring03/carpenters.cfm

Cabinet Maker: a craftsman specializing in the making of fine furniture
cabinet-making n
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cabinet-maker

The Cabinetmaker in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg by Heuvel, Johannes. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, 1963 VREF 680 C

The Cabinetmakers by Fisher, Leonard Everett. Franklin Watts, c 1966 VREF 684.1 F

Tools: Working Wood in Eighteenth-Century America by Gaynor, James M. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1993 VREF 684.082 G 1993

The Woodworkers by Kalman, Bobbie and Brady, Deanna. New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2002 VREF J 694.08 K 2002

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Cabinetmaker by Merrill, Amy French. New York: PowerKids Press, c2002. Series Title: Library of Living and Working in Colonial Times VREF J684.1 M

The First American Furniture Finisher’s Manual: A Reprint of “The Cabinet-Maker’s Guide of 1827” New York: Dover, c 1987 VREF 684.1 F 1987

Home Building and Woodworking in Colonial America by Wilbur, C. Keith. Old Saybrook, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, c 1992 VREF 694 W 1992

A Reverence for Wood by Sloane, Eric. New York: W. Funk, c 1965 VREF 684.08 S

Colonial Williamsburg article about Cabinet Makers:
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradecab.cfm
Another article about Cabinet Makers:
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/cabinetmaker.htm

Joiner/Joyner: a carpenter who did interior finish work by joining pieces of wood. Taken from:
http://virts.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sam/occupation.html#JK

The Complete Illustrated Guide to Joinery by Rogowski, Gary. Newtown, CT Taunton Press, c 2002 VREF 73 RUSH

Joining Wood: Techniques for Better Woodworking by Engler, Nick, Emmaus, PA. Rodale Press, c1992. VREF 684.08 E 1991

Joinery: Shaping and Milling: Techniques and Strategies for Making Furniture Parts from Fine Woodworking by Newtown, CT, Taunton Press; [Emeryville, CA]: Distributed by Publishers Group West, c1999 VREF 684.08 J 1999

Chandler:

a person who makes or sells candles and sometimes other items of tallow or wax, as soap. Taken from:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/chandler

Article about Chandlers:
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/forestoakms/site%20pages/academics/social%20studies/colonisl%20times/chandler.html

Charcoal Making:

Definition of Charcoal:
1. A black, porous, carbonaceous material, 85 to 98 percent carbon, produced by the destructive distillation of wood and used as a fuel, filter, and absorbent.
2.

  1. A drawing pencil or crayon made from this material.
  2. A drawing executed with such a pencil or crayon.

3. A dark grayish brown to black or dark purplish gray.

Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/charcoal

Article on Charcoal:
http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~scsharip/Charcoal.htm

American Charcoal Making by Kemper, Jackson. Eastern National Park & Monument Association. VREF 333.82

Cooking, Housekeeping, Domestic Arts:
Cooking is the process of preparing food with heat. Cooks select and combine ingredients using a wide range of tools and methods. In the process, the flavor, texture, appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients can change. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training.
Taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooking

Housekeeper: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/housekeeper
1. One who is employed to perform or direct the domestic tasks in a household.
2. A housewife.
3. An employee of an establishment, such as a hospital, inn, or hotel, who performs or coordinates housekeeping tasks.

Colonial Cooking Recipes:
http://www.handsonhistoryinc.org/HOH-Page11.html

Article on Colonial cooking:
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/food.htm

Images of Colonial cooking:
http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&bav=on.2,or.&wrapid=tlif129935718420310&q=colonial+cooking&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&sa=X&ei=DJ5yTdLLF8aBgAe7hoCaCA&ved=0CD4QsAQ&biw=1020&bih=583

Article on housekeeping:
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0F1FF63D5414728DDDA00994DA415B8785F0D3

Beer-Brewing, Gift of the Gods by Barrett, Wayne. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, X, No. 4, Summer 1988, pp. 34-35 VREF 975.5425 C

A Taste of the Past by Brandau, Rosemary. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 4, Summer 1987, pp. 28-32 VREF 975.5425 C

Welcome Little Stranger: Fashions of Motherhood by Baumgarten, Linda. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, X, No. 2, Winter 1987-1988, pp. 31-35 VREF 975.5425 C

The Widows of Williamsburg by Theobald, Mary Miley. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XV, No. 3, Spring 1993, pp. 57-63 VREF 975.5425 C

Everyday Life in Colonial America by Wright, Louis Booker. Putnam, 1965 VREF 973.2 W

Everyday Life in Early America by Hawke, David Freeman. New York: Harper & Row, c1988 VREF 973.2 H
David Freeman Hawke writes about “Settling In; The Farm; The House; The Home; Health; Manners and Morals; Red, White, and Black; War; Beyond the Farm; Toward the Eighteenth Century,” and more.

Life in Colonial America by Speare, Elizabeth George. Random House, 1963 VREF 973.2 S

Everyday Life in Colonial Virginia by Schaun, George. Greenberry Publications, c1960 VREF 975.5 S

Woman’s Life in Colonial Days by Holliday, Carl. Corner House, 1922 VREF 973.2 H 1922

Home and Child Life in Colonial Days by Earle, Alice Morse. Macmillan, c1899, c1927, c1993 VREF 973.2 E

Home Life in Colonial Days by Earle, Alice Morse. New York: Jonathon David Publishers, 1975 VREF 973.2 E 1974

Women’s Life and Work in the Southern Colonies by Spruill, Julia Cherry. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972 VREF 305.409 S 1998

Colonial Days: Discover the Past with Fun Projects, Games, Activities, and Recipes by King, David C. New York: Wiley, c1998 VREF 973.2 K 1998

Colonial American Home Life by Warner, J.F. (John F.). New York: Franklin Watts, c1993 VREF 973.2 W 1993

The Williamsburg Art of Cookery; or, Accomplish’d Gentlewoman’s Companion: Being a Collection of Upwards of Five Hundred of the Most Ancient and Approv’d Recipes in Virginia Cookery…Also a Table of Favorite Williamsburg Garden Herbs by Bullock, Helen Claire Duprey.Williamsburg: Dietz, c1938, c1966 VREF 641.5 B

Colonial Virginia Cookery by Carson, Jane. Colonial Williamsburg, 1968 VREF 641.5 C

Colonial Virginia Cookery: Procedures, Equipment, and Ingredients in Colonial Cooking by Carson, Jane.Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, c1985 VREF 641.5 C 1985

Cooking at Jamestown Settlement: A Living History Museum Administered by the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation Re-Creating America’s First Permanent English Settlement Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation. Williamsburg, Va.: Williamsburg Publishing Co. VREF 641.5 C

Hearthside Cooking: An Introduction to Virginia Plantation Cuisine, Including Bills of Fare, Tools and Techniques, and Original Recipes with Adaptations for Modern Fireplaces and Kitchens by Crump, Nancy Carter. McLean, Va.: EPM Publications, c1986 VREF 641.5 C

Domestic Life in Virginia in the Seventeenth Century by Jester, Annie Lash. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp, c1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 17

The Colonial Cook by Kalman, Bobbie. New York: Crabtree, c2002 VREF 641.09 K 2002

The First America Cookbook: A Facsimile of “American Cookery,” 1796 by Simmons, Amelia. New York: Dover Publications, 1984, c1958 VREF 641.01 S 1984

Colonial Life by Kalman, Bobbie. New York: Crabtree, c1992 VREF 973.2 K 1992

Housekeeping Book by Lewis, Nelly Custis.New Orleans, La.: Historic New Orleans Collection, 1982 VREF 640 L

Colonial Christmas Cooking by Mitchell, Patricia. Chatham, Va.: P.B. Mitchell, 1991 VREF 641.5 M 1991

Pleasures of Colonial Cooking Miller-Cory House Museum and New Jersey Historical Society. New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, c1982 VREF 641.5 P

Clergyman:

A man who is a member of the clergy. Clergy: the body of people ordained for religious service.

Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/clergyman
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/clergy

“Society of the Descendants of the Colonial Clergy”
http://www.colonialclergy.org

The Colonial Clergy of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina by Weis, Frederick Louis. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., c1955 VREF 929.375 WEIS 1955

Cooper / Barrel Building:

A cooper is a person who makes or repairs casks, barrels, etc.
Coopers made barrels, a very important job because almost everything was kept or transported in barrels: salted fish and meats, cider, molasses, and storage of gunpowder.

Taken from:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cooper

Colonial Williamsburg article on Cooper:
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradecoo.cfm

The Craft of the Cooper by Marden, Luis. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XII (No. 2) , Winter 1989-1990. pp. 17-26 VREF 975.5425 C

A Cooper’s Tale by Pettengell, George. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX (No. 3), Spring 1987. p. 13 VREF 975.5425 C

Coppersmith:

A person who makes utensils, jewelry, etc., out of copper.

Taken from:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/coppersmith

Site on Coppersmiths:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coppersmith

Craft Shops / Storekeeping:
Storekeeper:
1. One who keeps a retail store or shop; a shopkeeper.
2. One who is in charge of receiving or distributing stores or supplies, such as military or naval supplies.
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/storekeeper

Colonial Williamsburg Craft Shops by Sircom, Alice Commonwealth. XXXII, No. 4, April 1955, pp. 15-16 VREF 917.55

Doctor / Medicine / Physick:

A person, especially a physician, dentist or veterinarian, trained in the healing arts and licensed to practice.
Taken from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/doctor

Colonial Medicine
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/medicine.htm

“The Doctor”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/doctor.htm

“How did Colonial Doctors Work?”
http://www.ehow.com/about_4576118_how-did-colonial-doctors-work.html

“The Doctor in Colonial Days”
http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/history/colonial/doctor.htm

“A Day in the Life of a Colonial Doctor”
http://www.lauriekrebs.com/Pages/Colonial%20Doctor.html

Epidemics in Colonial America by Duffy, John. La State Univ. Press, c1953 VREF 614.49 D

Medicine in Virginia, 1607-1699 by Hughes, Thomas. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 21

Fevers, Agues, and Cures: Medical Life in Old Virginia by Savitt, Todd L. Virginia Historical Society, c1990 VREF 610.9 S 1990

Medicine and Slavery: The Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia by Savitt, Todd L. Univ. of Ill Press, 1978 VREF 326 S

Revolutionary Medicine, 1700-1800 by Wilbur, C. Keith. Chester, CT: Globe Pequot Press, c1980 VREF 610.9 W 1980

The Architecture of the Public Hospital: Continuing Madness by Chappell, Edward A. and McDonald, Travis C. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 3, Spring 1985, pp. 26-29 VREF 975.5425 C

Doctoring the Diseases of Virginia by Gill, Harold B., Jr. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XV, No. 1, Autumn 1992, pp. 45-47 VREF 975.5425 C

Smallpox in Williamsburg: Innoculations Stirred Controversy by Pryor, Susan and Pryor, B.J. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 3, Spring 1987, pp. 34-37 VREF 975.5425 C

The Public Hospital: Its Place in Williamsburg by Pappas, Nicholas A. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 3, Spring 1985, pp. 26-29 VREF 975.5425 C

The Public Hospital: Its Place in Williamsburg by Zwelling, Shomer S. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 4, Summer 1985, pp. 29-31 VREF 975.5425

Dressmaker:

A colonial dressmaker was kind of like a seamstress who made dresses for women. Dressmaker would weave or sew by hand. They were mostly female women, some were little girls.
Taken from:
http://www.life123.com/question/Colonial-Dressmaking

“Colonial Day Marketplace”
http://www.germantownacademy.org/academics/ls/3/colonial/colonialday/market/milliner.htm

“Colonial Dressmaking Tools”
http://www.ehow.com/list_6130674_colonial-dressmaking-tools.html

Farmer:

One who works on or operates a farm.
Taken from:
http://www.answers.com/topic/farmer
Most people in Colonial Virginia were farmers. Tobacco farming produced the “cash crop” for the colony which allowed Virginians to purchase manufactured goods.

“Colonial Farmer”
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/farmer.htm

“About Colonial Farm Life”
http://www.ehow.com/about_4566401_colonial-farm-life.html

“Farming in the 13 Colonies”
http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/13coloniesfarm.htm

Colonial Williamsburg article that includes information about tobacco farming:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/tradsamp.cfm

Agriculture in Virginia, 1607- 1699 by Carrier, Lyman. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957 V 975.5 S No. 14

Kingsmill Plantations, 1619-1800: Archaeology of Country Life in Colonial Virginia by Kelso, William M. Orlando: Academic Press, c1984 VREF 975.5425 K

Fishing:
The act, occupation, or sport of catching fish.

Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/fishing

“Colonial Fishing Tools”
http://www.ehow.com/list_6774204_colonial-fishing-tools.htm

The Bounty of the Chesapeake: Fishing in Colonial Virginia by Wharton, James. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration, 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 13

Foodways:

Dining was social in the Colonial era. Aside from providing basic sustenance, dining was also one of the most important ways that Colonial Virginians exchanged information.
Taken from: http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradefood.cfm

In social science, foodways are the cultural, social, and economic practices related to the production and consumption of food.
Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foodways

Article on Colonial Foodways:
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn04/food.cfm

The Founding Foodies: How Washington, Jefferson, and Franklin Revolutionized American Cuisine by DeWitt, Dave. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks, c2010 VREF 394.12 D 2010

Food and Drink in America by Hooker, Richard James. Indianapolis: Bobbs, c1981 VREF 394.12 H

Food by Noel Hume, Audrey. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, c1978 VREF 394.12 N 1978

Colonial Foodways by Crews, Ed. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XXVI, No. 3, Autumn 2004, pp. 76-81 VREF 975.5425 C

Founder:

Article on Founders in Colonial Williamsburg:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/founder.cfm

Article on Geddy Gunsmith and Founder:
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradegunfou.cfm

“Cast in the Colonial Mode”
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/winter03-04/foundry.cfm

Metalcasting by Ammen, C.W. New York: McGraw-Hill, c2000 VREF 671.2 A 2000

Firearms and the Founders by Crews, Ed. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XXII, No. 3, Autumn 2000, pp. 54-58 VREF 975.5425 C

Fuller:

A Fuller is a person who fulled cloth by increasing the weight and bulk of fabric by shrinking, beating, or pressing it.
Taken from http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sam/occupation.html#F

Gardening:

To cultivate a plot of ground as a garden.
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gardening

“Gardens of Colonial Williamsburg”
http://www.history.org/history/cwland/index.cfm
NOTE: See possibility on this site for Walking Tours
Also see the screensavers (pictures) that this site offers for users

“A Williamsburg Perspective on Colonial Gardens”
“It is a credit to the conservative English taste of Williamburg’s gardeners that this small Virginia town had some of the best examples of Anglo-Dutch gardens in the colonies. This garden style, characterized by geometric symmetry within an enclosed space, was common in England in the late 17th and early 18th Centuries. [To the Virginia settlers] a garden was nature tamed, trimmed, and enclosed within a fence or hedge. The colonists tended to create the garden they remembered, or their parents remembered, in the England of William and Mary”
(http://www.history.org/almanack/life/garden/garintro.cfm).

Gardens of Delight and Pleasure by Ingram, John. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 4, Summer 1986, pp. 17-35 VREF 975.5425 C

Virginia’s Oldest Garden: Medieval Exhedras at Bacon’s Castle Luccketti, Nicholas. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 4, Summer 1986, pp. 36-39 VREF 975.5425 C

Bottles and Bones and Asparagus? by Edwards, Andrew. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 4, Summer 1986, pp. 40-42 VREF 975.5425 C

Glassmaking:

The art of making glass or glassware.
Taken from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/glassmaking

“The Glassmaker”
“Some of the earliest Colonial tradesmen were glassblowers. They used the miles and miles of free sand on the Virginia shores to make glass. They made bottles, window panes, and beads.”
Taken from:
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/glassmaker.htm

In order to visit Jamestown to see how glass was made, go to:
“Jamestown Glasshouse” at
http://www.jamestownglasshouse.com/About.html

“Colonial Glass-Making Tools”
http://www.ehow.com/list_6644290_colonial-glass_making-tools.html

The Glasshouse: Jamestown Virginia by Bolitho, Hector. Jamestown Glasshouse Foundation, 1957 VREF 748 B 1957

A Tryal of Glasse: The Story of Glassmaking at Jamestown by Harrington, J. C. Richmond, Va.: Dietz Press, 1972 VREF 748 H

William and Mary Quarterly, Series 2, Volume 21, 1941. pp. 119-138; pp. 227-238; pp. 121-124; p. 126; p.128; p. 134; p. 135; p. 229; p. 233; p. 234; p. 122 VREF 975.505

Glassmaking at Jamestown, 1608-1609 and 1621-1624: One of the First English Industries in the New World by Hudson, J. Paul. Jamestown, Va.: Jamestown Foundation, 1967 VREF 748 H 1967

Glass in Colonial Williamsburg’s Archaeological Collections by Hume, Ivor Noel. Williamsburg, Va.:: Colonial Williamsburg, 1969 VREF 748 N

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Glassblower by Branse, J. L. New York: PowerKids Press, c 2002 VREF 748.2 B 2002

Gunsmith:

A Gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds firearms.

Taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunsmith

“The History of Gunsmithing”
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5007759_history-gunsmithing.html

The Gunsmith’s Shop”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn00/gunsmith.cfm

“How do Colonial Gunsmiths Make a Gun?”
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_colonial_gunsmiths_make_a_gun

The Gunsmith in Colonial Virginia by Gill, Harold B. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1974 VREF 683.4 G

Lord Dunmore’s Guns by Hood, Graham. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 2, Winter 1985-1986, p. 25 VREF 975.5425 C

The Gunsmith’s Shop by Crews, Ed. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XXII, No. 3, Autumn 2000, pp. 50-53 VREF 975.5425 C

Harness Maker/Leather Worker:

A Harness Maker cuts, assembles, and joins leather and other parts of harnesses, following customer specifications concerning color and thickness of leather and size or type of harness, to fabricate new or pair damaged or worn harnesses.
Taken from:
http://www.careerplanner.com/DOT-Job-Descriptions/HARNESS-MAKER.cfm

Colonial Williamsburg article on Harness Makers
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/harnmkr.cfm

“Working in Harness”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/spring04/saddler.cfm

“The Tanner”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/tanner.htm

Eric Myall’s Way with Leather by Barrett, Wayne. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 3, Spring 1987, p. 14 VREF 975.5425 C

The Leatherworker in the Eighteenth Century Williamsburg: Being an Account of the Nature of Leather, and the Crafts Commonly Engaged in the Making and Using of It Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation VREF 680 C

Hatters:

A Hatter is actually a person who makes hats for men. Most are made of beaver skin, and some are actually made of straw, cotton, or even wool. To be a hatter you must be good with your hands, patient, know about animal fur, know how to make different hats, as well as being able to make and put the glue on them.
Taken from:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_colonial_hatter

“The Hatter”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/hatter.htm

Of special note: Hat Making in Colonial Times (The Mad Hatter):
When “steaming hot orange liquid [was] used to wash furs in the felting process, […] the mercury in the liquid became airborne in the steam of poorly ventilated workrooms, it attacked the nervous system of the felters and fullers.” This is also known as “the Danbury Shakes”
http://www.ehow.com/way_5553179_hat-making-colonial-times.html

Hornsmith:

A Hornsmith used animal horn, softened it, flattened it into sheets, clarified it, and made tortoise shell combs, buttons, and hornbooks.
Taken from:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_a_Colonial_American_Hornsmith

“Colonial Craftsmen and the Beginnings of American Industry”

http://books.google.com/books?id=TV-Y4QD-IaoC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=colonial+hornsmith&source=bl&ots=QJgl1vLOFS&sig=8n1ELnKqNxHPghvVYY9BXtb8uqo&hl=en&ei=jNClTf_RB8P00gHR_9D3CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&sqi=2&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=colonial%20hornsmith&f=false

Ice-Making:

John Gorrie was awarded US Patent 8080 in 1851 for an ice machine. Alexander Twining received a patent in 1853 for an ice maker, US Patent 10221. James Harrison of Australia received a patent in 1855 for an ice maker.
Taken from:
http://www.answers.com/topic/icemaker#History

For information about ice makers, go to:
http://www.answers.com/topic/icemaker

The Frozen Water Trade: A True Story by Weightman, Gavin. New York: Hyperion, 2003 VREF 338.47 W 2003

The Icehouse by Gray, Louise. The Bulletin of the King and Queen County Historical Society of Virginia, No. 59, July 1985, pp. 2-3 VREF 975.535 K 1983/91

Before Our Ice Age by Hoffman, David. Country, vol.4, No. 8, August 1983, pp. 50-52 VREF 974 C Volume 4 1983

Keeping Cool: Early Alexandria Ice Houses by Miller, T. Michael.The Fireside Sentinel. Alexandria Library (Lloyd House), vol. 5, No. 6, June 1991, pp. 78-80 VREF 975.5296 F 1991 V. 5

Iron-Making:

For the history of iron-making, go to:
http://www.engr.psu.edu/mtah/articles/roots_colonial_iron_technology.htm

“Virginia Iron in the Colonial Era:”
http://www.virginiaplaces.org/geology/iron.html

For a picture of an iron furnace, go to:
“Hopewell Village and the Colonial Iron Industry”
http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/regional_review/vol2-4b.htm

The first English speaking settlers at Jamestown in 1607 quickly realized that the lack of gold and silver might be offset by the abundance of iron ore and trees for making charcoal to smelt it […] There were three types of ferrous metal in use in the Colonial period: cast iron (high in carbon and brittle, but excellent for making items like frying pans, Dutch ovens, cannon balls and the cheaper grades of cannon; wrought iron (low in carbon and very tough so excellent for anchor chains, nails, and musket barrels); and steel (carefully controlled amounts of carbon allowed steel to be hardened for specific uses such as knife blades, files, saws, springs, musket ramrods and swords).

Taken from:
“Iron and Steel in Colonial America”
http://www.flintriflesmith.com/WritingandResearch/WebArticles/ironandsteel.htm

When the Rose is in the Bloomery: It’s Iron-Making Time by Harvey, David. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 2, Winter 1985-86, pp. 9-12 VREF 975.5425 C

Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works by Richmond, Va.: Library of Virginia, 1999 VREF 338.76 D 1999

Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era by Bruce, Kathleen. Kelley, 1968 VREF 338.47 B

Librarian:
A Librarian is a “specialist in the care and management of a library”
Taken from:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/librarian

Archivist:
An Archivist is “one who is in charge of archives”
Taken from:
http://www.answers.com/topic/archivist

Read about Colonial Libraries in “The History of Academic Libraries in the US: a Review of the Literature”
http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/weiner.htm

Locksmith:

A Locksmith is “one that makes or repairs locks”
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/locksmith

For the history of locksmithing go to “The Locksmith” at:
http://www.engr.psu.edu/mtah/articles/locksmith.htm

Locksmithing: From Apprentice to Master by Rathjen, Joseph E. Tab Books, C1995 VREF 683.3 R 1995

Mills and Millers:
A Mill is “a machine or device that reduces a solid or coarse substance into pulp or minute grains by crushing, grinding, or pressing”

A mill is also a “building equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour or meal”
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Mill

A Miller is “one that operates a mill; specifically one that grinds grain into flour”
Taken from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/miller

Go to “The History of Flour Milling in Early America” by Theodore R. Hazen:
“Wheat was grown in New England primarily along coastal areas. The rocky soil and climate of New England never made New England a large wheat growing center. Wheat was a more important crop in the areas of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia. Note: Johnny Cakes were originally called Journey Cakes”
http://www.angelfire.com/journal/millrestoration/history.html

“Mills and Millers of Ireland”
http://www.millsofireland.org/

“The Miller and the Windmill” from Colonial Williamsburg, by Ed Crews
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn02/windmill.cfm

“Report on Mills and Millers”
http://www.angelfire.com/journal/millbuilder/interview.html

“A Day in the Life of a Colonial Miller”
http://www.lauriekrebs.com/Pages/Colonial%20Miller.html

Burwell’s Mill on the Road to Independence by Simpson, Alan. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 1, Autumn 1986, pp. 34-39 VREF 975.5425 C

Windmills in early America by Sass, John A. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XII, No. 1, Autumn 1989, pp. 7-15 VREF 975.5424 C

Milliner:

“In the 18th Century, millinery shops were almost always owned by women. Milliners would make items such as: shirts, shifts, aprons, neckerchiefs, caps, cloaks, hoods, hats, muffs, ruffles, trim for gowns […] It was not uncommon for a milliner in the colonies to advertise that she had just imported from London the very latest in mercery, haberdashery, jewelry, hosiery, shoes, ‘and other items too tedious to mention’” (http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/trademln.cfm).

The Milliner by Walker, Niki and Kalman, Bobbie. New York: Crabtree, c 2002 J 391.09 W 2002
Series: Colonial People. Describes the work of the milliner in Colonial America, which included gown making, laundering, and lace making as well as selling sewing supplies and other goods.

Colonial Williamsburg article about Milliners (also mentions tailors):
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/milliner.cfm

Musicians and Singers:

“About Early American Music:”
“Colonial music was not so much music written in America before the Revolution as it was music that was brought here and helped define the people who were to make a new country. […] Their music included ballads, dance tunes, folk songs and parodies, comic opera and arias, drum signals, psalms, minuets and sonatas” Found at:
http://www.colonialmusic.org/Resource/DHessay.htm#WhichInstrumentsWere).

After You, Peter Pelham by Barrett, Wayne. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 1, Autumn 1984, pp. 22-23 VREF 975.5425 C

Marcus Hansen and the Singing Wood: Making Musical Instruments on the Tradition of the Great Masters by Marden, Luis. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XIV, No. 2, Winter 1991-92, pp. 8-19 VREF 975.5425 C

Painters:

Limner: the work of untrained, generally anonymous artists active in the English American colonies. Characteristic examples of their paintings show flat, awkward, often frontal figures in richly detailed costumes and landscape settings copied from European prints. The limner tradition extended well into the 19th cent
Taken from:
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/limner

“Colonial American Portrait Painters”
Invaluable.com: http://www.invaluable.com/fine-art-genre/colonial-american-portrait-painters-9rfc2vpwgo?af

Colonial Painter’s Tools
http://www.ehow.com/list_7557776_colonial-painters-tools.html

The Limners: America’s Earliest Portrait Painters by Fisher, Leonard Everett. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1969 757 F 1969

Charles Bridges and William Dering: Two Virginia Painters, 1735-1750 by Hood, Graham. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, c1978 759.1 H

Pewterer:
Pewter: “any of a number of ductile, silver-white alloys consisting principally of tin. The properties vary with the percentage of tin and the nature of the added materials. Lead, when added, imparts a bluish tinge and increased malleability and tens to escape from the ally in poisonous quantities if the percentage used is too large; antimony adds whiteness and hardness. Other metals including copper, bismuth, and zinc can also be added” Taken from:
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0838663.html

“A Brief History of American Pewter”
http://www.pewtercollectorsclub.org/pewthist.html

“Working with Pewter: A Colonial Symbol of Prosperity”
http://colonialsense.com/How-To_Guides/Crafts/Working_with_Pewter.php

“Town: When We Grow Up”
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002611F/town.htm

“Why was a Pewterer Important in Colonial America?”
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_was_a_pewterer_important_ti_colonial_america

Paper Making and Paper Mills:

“In Colonial times paper was made out of cloth and linen rags. […] The first person who made paper in colonial times was William Rittenhouse. […] Not many men practiced papermaking because of the steady hand and careful skill it required. Colonists needed paper for writing out receipts, keeping records, newspaper, books, writing letters, and so much more. In 1690 Rittenhouse built the first paper mill in the colonies in Germantown, Pennsylvania” Taken from:
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/papermaker.htm

“Papermaking Moves to the United States”
http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_pm_usa.htm

“Hand Made Paper in America—1690s to 1820s”
http://www.historybuff.com/library/ref1690.html

“From Rags to (Paper) Riches: Explore Colonial Papermaking”
http://explorepahistory.com/viewLesson.php?id=1-D-59

Interpretations by O’Toole, Dennis. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 1, Autumn 1984, p. 18 VREF 975.5425 C

Politicians:

“Colonial Government and Politics”
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial-government-and-politics

“What features of colonial politics contributed to the development of popular democracy?”

Answer to this found at: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_features_of_colonial_politics_contributed_to_the_development_of_popular_democracy

“Colonial Government”
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap10_5.html

English America’s First Capitol Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, X, No. 1, Autumn 1987, pp. 5-13 VREF 975.5425 C

The Government of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century by Wertenbaker, Thomas J. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 16

Potter:
“The potter usually worked alone. The Colonial American potters worked with many different kind of clays. The colors of the clay were reddish, brownish, or grayish. A potter's wheel was used to shape the clay. A potter's wheel is a horizontal, circular worktable that moves around a central point just like your bicycle tires turns around the hub. When the potter was satisfied with his work they would pass a tight wire under the base to remove the pot from the wheel. Then the potter would put it on a drying board. Once the drying board was filled it was put out in the sun to dry” Taken from:
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/potter.htm

“On Pottery in Colonial America”
http://www.juliasmith.com/historicpottery/articles.htm

“Pottery”
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/forestoakms/site%20pages/academics/social%20studies/colonisl%20times/pottery.html

“History of Colonial Pottery”
http://www.ehow.com/facts_7362151_history-colonial-pottery.html

Pottery and Porcelain in Colonial Williamsburg’s Archaeological Collections by Hume, Ivor Noel. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1969 V 738 N

Printers and Binders :

The Colonial Printer, Man of Many Parts: Also Postmaster, Publisher, Purveyor of Goods, He Strove to Make an Honest Penny by Cox, James. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XI, No. 1, Autumn 1988, pp. 22-32 VREF 975.5425 C

The German Press of the Shenandoah Valley by Doltmetsch Christopher L. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1984 VREF 655.1755 D

The Printer in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg: An Account of His Life and Times, His Office and His Craft Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Va. VREF 680 C

Colonial Williamsburg article about Printers and Bookbinders:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/printer.cfm

“Printer and Binder”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradepri.cfm

“The Colonial Printer & Bookbinding”
http://www.colonialprinter.org/

“Colonial Printer”
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/printer.htm

“Colonial Printers”
http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Michael's%20Stuff/colonial_printers.html

“The Printer”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/printer.htm

“Printer”
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/forestoakms/site%20pages/academics/social%20studies/colonisl%20times/Printer.html

Images of a Colonial Printer can be found at:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+printer&hl=en&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=4-XXTebaJ5GdgQfWx51Y&sqi=2&ved=0CCsQsAQ&biw=987&bih=555

An excellent book to purchase concerning colonial printing is:
The Colonial Printer by Lawrence C. Wroth ISBN: 0486282945

Shipbuilding:

Shipbuilding: “The art or business of designing and constructing ships”
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/shipbuilding.

History in a Capsule by Davis, Virginia Waller. Virginia Record, LXXIX, No.6, June 1957, pp. 10-11 VREF 975.505 V

Some Notes on Shipbuilding and Shipping in Colonial Virginia by Evans, Cerinda W. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 22

The Shipbuilders by Fisher, Leonard Everett. Watts, c1971. Reprinted by Marshall Cavendish, 1998. Series: Colonial Americans; Colonial Craftsmen J 623.822 F

Shipbuilding in Virginia, 1763-1774 by Kelso, William. Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington, DC, 1871-1972. Ed. By Francis Coleman Rosenberger, pp. 1-13 VREF 975.3 C

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Shipwright by Krebs, Laurie. New York: PowerKids Press, c 2004. 24 p. J 623.8 K 2004

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Sailmaker by Krebs, Laurie. New York: PowerKids Press, c2004 J 623.862 K

Ships and Shipbuilding in the Chesapeake Bay and Tributaries by Middleton, Arthur Pierce.

Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution. Ed. By Ernest McNeill Eller. Centreville, Md.: Tidewater Publishers, 1981 VREF 973.3 C

A Goodly Ship: the Building of the Susan Constant by Spectre, Peter H. and Larkin, David. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992 VREF 975.5424 S 1992

“The Shipbuilder”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/shipbuilder.htm

Images of Colonial Shipbuilding:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+shipbuilding&hl=en&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=2-vXTfqNB9LqgQfhrflX&sqi=2&ved=0CCIQsAQ&biw=1004&bih=555

“Ships, Boats, and Shipbuilding in Early America”
http://www.ancestry.com/learn/library/article.aspx?article=11097&print=1

Ships Captain:
Ships Captain: “The captain (alt. master or shipmaster) of a merchant vessel is a licensed mariner in ultimate command of the vessel [1]. The captain is responsible for its safe and efficient operation, including cargo operations, navigation, crew management and ensuring that the vessel complies with local and international laws, as well as company and flag state policies. All persons on board, including officers and crew, other shipboard staff members, passengers, guests and pilots, are under captain's authority”
Taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_(nautical).
[1] Taken from:

  • Aragon, James R.; Messer, Tuuli Anna (2001). Master's handbook on ship's business. Cambridge, Md: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN0-87033-531-6.

Where in the World is Williamsburg?: The Art of Navigation—A Thing of Chance in this Year of 1770 Stewart, Captain Duncan. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XI, No. 4, Summer 1989, pp. 43-47 VREF 975.5425 C

The Colonial Harvest and Ships by Conant, Melvin A. Great Falls Historical Society, 1982 VREF 975.5 C 1982

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Sea Captain by Branse, J. L. New York: PowerKids Press, c2002.
Series Title: The Library of Living and Working in Colonial Times J 639.28 B 2002 “Captain (Nautical)”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_(nautical)

“Captain John Smith”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/smith.cfm

“What are the Duties of Colonial Ships Captains?”
http://www.ehow.com/info_8464246_duties-colonial-ship-captains.html

Shoemaker:

Shoemaker: “(Business / Professions) a person who makes or repairs shoes or boots”
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Shoemaker

“Boot and Shoemaker”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradesho.cfm

“Colonial Shoemaker”
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/shoemaker.htm

“The Shoemaker”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/shoemaker.htm

“What Did Colonial Shoemakers Use to Make Shoes?”
http://www.ehow.com/facts_7446573_did-shoemakers-use-make-shoes_.html

Images for Colonial Shoemaker Can Be Found at:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+shoemaker&hl=en&biw=1004&bih=555&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=WU3qTdPHCIrVgQek_v3XCQ&sqi=2&ved=0CD8QsAQ

The Shoemakers by Fisher, Leonard Everett. Colonial Craftsmen Series. New York: Benchmark Books, 1998 J 685 F

Silversmith:

Silversmith: “One that makes, repairs, or replates articles of silver”
Taken from: http://www.answers.com/topic/silversmith

The Silversmiths of Virginia Together with Watchmakers and Jewelers from 1694 to 1850 by Cutten, George Barton. Richmond, Va.: The Dietz Press, Inc., 1952 VREF 739.2 C

The Colonial Silversmith: His Techniques and His Products by Kauffman, Henry J. Nelson, 1969 REF 739.2 K

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Silversmith by Wilmore, Kathy. New York: Powerkids Press, 2000 J 739.2 W 2000

The Silversmith in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg: An Account of His Life & Times & of His Craft Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972 VREF 680 C

John Gaither, Silversmith, Alexandria Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts. Vol. 9, No. 1, Index, 1983 VREF 709.75 J

Maryland Silversmiths, 1715-1830, with Illustrations of Their Silver and Their Marks and With a Facsimile of the Design Book of William Faris by Pleasants, Jacob Hall and Sill, Howard. New York: R. A. Greene, 1972 739.2 P

Colonial Silversmiths Virginia Cavalcade. Vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 4-13 VREF 975.505 V

Colonial Williamsburg Article about Silversmiths:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/silsmith.cfm

“Silversmith”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradesil.cfm

“A Colonial Silversmith”
http://www.balestino.com/learning/stories/colonial_silversmith_1.asp

“The Silversmith”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/silversmith.htm

Images of Colonial Silversmiths:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+silversmith&hl=en&noj=1&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=T3XqTauqGqnr0gGimIyJAQ&ved=0CEkQsAQ&biw=987&bih=538

Soldiers:

Soldier: “1.One who serves in an army. 2. An enlisted person or a noncommissioned officer”
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/soldier

“Colonial Soldier”
http://www.iroquoisdemocracy.pdx.edu/html/colonialsoldier.htm

“Soldiers of the Colonial Militia”
http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/2001_winter_spring/colonial_militia.html

“A Common American Soldier”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn04/soldier.cfm

“Virginia’s Colonial Soldiers”
http://www.genealogical.com/products/Virginias%20Colonial%20Soldiers/490.html

Images for Colonial Soldiers:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+soldiers&hl=en&biw=1020&bih=583&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=f4rqTf22DanL0QH7_umHAQ&ved=0CCIQsAQ

Surveyors:

Survey: “To examine or look at comprehensively.
2. To inspect carefully; scrutinize: "Two women were surveying the other people on the platform" (Thomas Wolfe).
3. To determine the boundaries, area, or elevations of (land or structures on the earth's surface) by means of measuring angles and distances, using the techniques of geometry and trigonometry.
4. Chiefly British To inspect and determine the structural condition of (a building).
5. To conduct a statistical survey on.
6. To range one's gaze leisurely over.
v.intr.
To make a survey.
n. (sûrv)pl. sur·veys
1. A detailed inspection or investigation.
2. A general or comprehensive view.
3. A gathering of a sample of data or opinions considered to be representative of a whole.

4.
a. The process of surveying.
b. A report on or map of what has been surveyed.
c. An administrative agency charged with the responsibility of surveying: the U.S. Geological Survey.”
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/surveyor

“Surveyors and Mapmakers”
http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/mapping/surveyors/index.htm

“A Surveyor for the King”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/summer01/surveyor.cfm

“Early American Surveyors: Mapping the Wilderness”
http://www.profsurv.com/magazine/article.aspx?i=2038

Images for Colonial Surveyors:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+surveyor&hl=en&biw=987&bih=555&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=HWzzTcWIEIPHgAfygM24Cw&ved=0CEkQsAQ

Drawing the Line: How Mason and Dixon Surveyed the Most Famous Border in America by Danson, Edwin. John Wiley, c2001 974.8 D 2001

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Surveyor by Merrill, Amy French. New York: PowerKids Press, c2002 J 526.9 M

Time and Space: Measuring Instruments from the 15th to the 19th Century by Guye, Samuel. Praeger, 1971 681.1 G

Footprints from the Old Survey Books: Of Halifax & Pittsylvania Counties in Virginia by Dodson, Roger C. Pittsylvania Historical Society, c1989 VREF 929.2755 HALI

Tazewell County, Virginia Survey Book by Douthat, James L. Mountain Press, 1996 VREF 929.3755 TAZE 1996

Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia by Hughes, Sarah Shaver. Virginia Surveyors, c1979 VREF 526.9 H

Tanner:

Tanner: n.One that tans hides.
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tanner

“The Tanner”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/tanner.htm

“Tanner”
http://www3.cesa10.k12.wi.us/investigate-america/colonial/occupations/tanner/index.htm

“Tanner”
http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/albany/trades/tanner.html

The Tanners byFishier, Leonard Everett. New York: Benchmark Books, 1966 675.2 F

Deerskins into Buckskins: How to Tan with Natural Materials: A Field Guide for Hunters and Gatherers by Richards, Matt. Backcountry Publishing, c1997 675.2 R 1997

The Complete Book of Tanning Skins and Furs by Churchill, James E. Harrisburg, Pa: Stackpole Books, c1983 675.2 C

Taverns and Inns:
Tavern: noun
1. a place where liquors are sold to be consumed on the premises.
2. a public house for travelers and others.
Taken from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tavern

Inn:
1. a public lodging house serving food and drink to travelers; a hotel.
2. a tavern or restaurant.
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Inn

“Taverns in the American Colonies”
http://www.dobbinhouse.com/taverns.htm

Images of Colonial Taverns:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+taverns&hl=en&biw=1003&bih=583&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=RqP8TcOJH8Xh0QHH5I2cAw&ved=0CD8QsAQ

Go to the following URL to access taverns that are now open:
http://americanpublichousereview.com/colonial_taverns/index.html

The Colonial Williamsburg Tavern Cookbook by Pierce, Charles and Gonzales, John R. New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers. Wiliamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2001 VREF 641.5 C 2001

Songs from a Colonial Tavern Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1964 VREF 784.4 V

America’s Historic Inns and Taverns by Haas, Irvin. New York: Arco Publishing Company, c1977 917.3 H

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Innkeeper by Wilmore, Kathy. New York: Powerkids Press, 2000 J 647.94 W 2000

Sally Lunn and Salamagundi: Colonial Cookery Lives On in Williamsburg by Miles, James C. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 1, Autumn 1984, pp. 24-27 VREF 975.5425 C

The Rebirth of Shields Tavern: Using 20th Century Technology to Recreate 18th Century Ambiance by Wenger, Mark R. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XI, No. 3, Spring 1989, pp. 8-17 VREF 975.5425 C

Teachers:
Teacher:
one that teaches; especially : one whose occupation is to instruct
Taken from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/teacher

“School During Colonial Times”
http://www.arps.org/amhersthistory/nas/school%20during%20colonial%20times/colonialschool.htm

“About Teachers in Colonial Times”
http://www.ehow.com/about_4569902_teachers-colonial-times.html

Reading, Writing and Arithmetic in Virginia, 1607-1699: Other Cultural Topics by Ames, Susie M. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 15

The Development of Public Schools in Virginia, 1607-1952 by Buck, J. L. B. Richmond, Va.: State Board of Education, 1952 VREF 379.755 B

A History of Education in Virginia by Heatwole, Cornelius Jacob. VRARE 379.755 H

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Schoolteacher by Wilmore, Kathy. New York: Powerkids Press, 2000 J 370.973 W

Founding of the College of William and Mary by Kale, Wilford. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VII, No. 2, Winter 1985, pp. 24-27 VREF 975.5425 C

Thou Earliest College by Morpungo, J. E. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XV, No. 2, Winter 1992-93, pp. 12-17 VREF 975.5425 C

Theaters and Acting:

Theatre:
1) (Performing Arts / Theatre)
2) a building designed for the performance of plays, operas, etc.
3) (as modifier) a theatre ticket
4) (in combination) a theatregoer
5) a large room or hall, usually with a raised platform and tiered seats for an audience, used for lectures, film shows, etc.
6) (Performing Arts / Theatre) plays regarded collectively as a form of art
7) the theatre, the world of actors, theatrical companies, etc. the glamour of the theatre
8) a setting for dramatic or important events
9) (Performing Arts / Theatre) writing that is suitable for dramatic presentation a good piece of theatre
10) (Performing Arts) US, Austral, NZ the usual word for cinema
11) (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Architecture) a circular or semicircular open-air building with tiers of seats
[from Latin the?trum, from Greek theatron place for viewing, from theasthai to look at; related to Greek thauma miracle]
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/theatre

Acting:
1) That contains directions for use in a dramatic performance: the play's acting text.
2) That is appropriate for dramatic performance: an acting comedy.
3) The occupation of an actor or actress.
4) Performance as an actor or actress.
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/acting

“The First American Theatre”
http://www.theatrehistory.com/american/hornblow01.html

“The Colonial American Stage 1665-1774: A Documentary Calendar” (a Book Review)
http://inside.fdu.edu/fdupress/06030305review.html

“Musical Theatre”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_theatre
(scroll down for Colonial Musical Theatres)

Let the Entertainment Begin: Living Theater from Drury Lane to Colonial Williamsburg by Bush, Charles Eugene. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 1, Autumn 1986, pp. 20-24 VREF 975.5425 C

Debut of Fairbooth Theatre: After 218 Years Players Return to Palace Green by Hamant, John.Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. XI, No. 1, Autumn 1988, pp. 19-21 VREF 975.5425 C

Tinker or Whitesmith:
Tinker: (esp. in former times) A person who travels from place to place mending metal utensils as a way of making a living.
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tinker

Whitesmith:
1. One who works white metal.
2. One who does finish work, such as polishing, on iron.
Taken from:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/whitesmith

“My Life as a Whitesmith”
http://www.asij.ac.jp/elementary/gr5web/projects/martinsburg/5Ma_colonial_webs/keigo/
Images for the Colonial Whitesmith:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+whitesmith&hl=en&biw=1024&bih=567&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=UcwqTomwNqjj0QH5sZnnCg&ved=0CFwQsAQ

“Colonial Whitesmith’s Tools”
http://www.ehow.com/info_8062251_colonial-whitesmiths-tools.html

Colonial Jobs:
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002132/jobs.html

Tobacco Farmer:
See also Farmer
Tobacco Farming: Farmers in the Southern Colonies grew several things. The most popular crop was tobacco. The Jamestown colonists had grown tobacco originally, and tobacco farms sprung up all over Virginia and North Carolina. The two southernmost states (South Carolina and Georgia) also grew indigo and rice.
Taken from: http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/13coloniesfarm.htm

Economic Aspects of Tobacco during the Colonial Period 1612-1776:
http://www.tobacco.org/History/colonialtobacco.html

Tobacco and Staple Agriculture:
http://www.virginiaplaces.org/agriculture/tobaccostaple.html

Agriculture in Virginia, 1607-1699 by Carrier, Lyman. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Coporation, 1957 VREF 975.5 S No. 14

Tobacco, Tobacco Hogsheads and Rolling Roads in Northern Virginia by Gage, Charles E. Falls Church, Va.: Falls Church Historical Commission, 1959 VREF 975.52 G

The Colonial Harvest and Ships by Conant, Melvin A. Great Falls, Va.: Great Falls Historical Society, 1982 VREF 975.5 C 1982

Weaver:

Usually the one who does this home craft. Wool, cotton, and flax were most commonly woven.
Weaving: The act of one who, or that which, weaves; the act or art of forming cloth in a loom by the union or intertexture of threads.
Taken from:
http://www.answers.com/topic/weaving

“Weaver”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradewea.cfm

“Weaving”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weaving

Wheelwright:

Wheelwrights were the men who made wheels for riding chairs, carriages, and wagons. Wood was used to make the wheels and an iron ring was placed around the outside to bind it. The wheels had to be strong and sturdy because the colonial roads were very rugged. It was important that the wheels were round and precise measuring was necessary. The wheelwright would work closely with the blacksmith who would supply him with the big hoop of iron that would fit around the wood. The wheelwright would heat the iron tire so it would expand big enough to go around the spokes and then pour water on the iron which would cause it to shrink just a bit to make a perfect fit.

Taken from:
http://www.ssdsbergen.org/Colonial/wheelwright.htm

“Wheelwright”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradewhe.cfm

“Wheels and Riding Carts”
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter04-05/wheel.cfm

Wigmaker:
See Barber
a person who makes or sells wigs.
Taken from:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/wigmaker

“Wigmaker”
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/trades/tradewig.cfm

“Wigmaker”
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/wigmkr.cfm

Images for Colonial Wigmakers:
http://www.google.com/search?q=colonial+wigmakers&hl=en&biw=1024&bih=567&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=UAsrTuTRJMzpgQeAwJyECw&ved=0CEMQsAQ

“The Wigmaker”
http://www.pocanticohills.org/tradesmen/wigmaker.htm

“Hair and Wigs”
http://www.williamsburgkids.com/things/hairwigs.htm

“A Colonial Wigmaker”
http://www.balestino.com/learning/stories/colonialwigmaker_1.asp

A Day in the Life of a Colonial Wigmaker by Wilmore, Kathy. New York: PowerKids Press, 2000 J 679 W 2000

The Wigmaker in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg: An Account of His Barbering, Hairdressing, and Peruke-Making Services, and Some Remarks on Wigs of Various Styles Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 680 C

Woodworkers:
See Carpenters and Cabinetmakers and Joiners

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation:
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/index.cfm

Trades in Colonial Williamsburg:
http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/trades/tradehdr.cfm

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Colonial Era Resources:

Holidays:

Giving Thanks: Harvest-Time Holiday Began in America with Observances at Jamestown, Berkeley, Plymouth by Rouse, Parke, Jr. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, IX, No. 1, Autumn 1986, pp. 44-47 VREF 975.5425 C

Saving Christmas in the Colonies by Cox, James A. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, XIII, No. 2, Winter 1990-91, pp. 14-19 VREF 975.5425 C

Decorating Colonial Williamsburg: A Christmas Tradition by DeSamper, Hugh. Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, VIII, No. 2, Winter 1985-86, pp. 21-25 VREF 975.5425 C

The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580-1631): in three volumes Ed. by Barbour, Philip L. Chapel Hill : Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va. by the University of North Carolina Press, c1986 VREF 975.5 S

Travels and Works of Captain John Smith by Smith, John (1580-1631). B. Franklin, 1965 VREF 975.5 S


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