This Glossary is provided to assist the public in understanding the staff evaluation and analysis of development proposals. It should not be construed as representing legal definitions. Refer to the Fairfax County Zoning Ordinance, Comprehensive Plan or Public Facilities Manual for additional information.
ABANDONMENT: Refers to road or street abandonment, an action taken by the Board of Supervisors, usually through the public hearing process, to abolish the public's right of passage over a road or road right of way. Upon abandonment, the right of way automatically reverts to the underlying fee owners. If the fee to the owner is unknown, Virginia law presumes that fee to the roadbed rests with the adjacent property owners if there is no evidence to the contrary.
ABUTTING/ADJACENT OWNER: A person holding legal interest in real property bordering or next to property that is the subject of a pending application.
ACCESSORY DWELLING UNIT (OR APARTMENT): A secondary dwelling unit established in conjunction with and clearly subordinate to a single family detached dwelling unit. An accessory dwelling unit may be allowed if a special permit is granted by the Board of Zoning Appeals (BZA). Refer to Sect. 8 918 of the Zoning Ordinance.
ACCESSORY USE: An activity or structure incidental or secondary to the principal use on the same site.
AFFORDABLE DWELLING UNIT (ADU) DEVELOPMENT: Residential development to assist in the provision of affordable housing for persons of low and moderate income in accordance with the affordable dwelling unit program and in accordance with Zoning Ordinance regulations. Residential development which provides affordable dwelling units may result in a density bonus (see below) permitting the construction of additional housing units. See Part 8 of Article 2 of the Zoning Ordinance.
AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTAL DISTRICTS: A land use classification created under Chapter 114 or 115 of the Fairfax County Code for the purpose of qualifying landowners who wish to retain their property for agricultural or forestal use for use/value taxation pursuant to Chapter 58 of the Fairfax County Code.
BARRIER: A wall, fence, earthen berm, or plant materials which may be used to provide a physical separation between land uses. Refer to Article 13 of the Zoning Ordinance for specific barrier requirements.
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs): Stormwater management techniques or land use practices that are determined to be the most effective, practicable means of preventing and/or reducing the amount of pollution generated by nonpoint sources in order to improve water quality.
BUFFER: Graduated mix of land uses, building heights or intensities designed to mitigate potential conflicts between different types or intensities of land uses; may also provide for a transition between uses. A landscaped buffer may be an area of open, undeveloped land and may include a combination of fences, walls, berms, open space and/or landscape plantings. A buffer is not necessarily coincident with transitional screening.
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (CIP): A document that proposes development, modernization or replacement of physical public projects over a five year period. It lists an estimated cost and anticipated funding method for each project and provides the financial foundation to implement the Comprehensive Plan and public facilities plans.
CHESAPEAKE BAY PRESERVATION ORDINANCE: Regulations which the State has mandated must be adopted to protect the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. These regulations must be incorporated into the comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances and subdivision ordinances of the affected localities. Refer to Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act, Va. Code Section 10.1 2100 et seq and VR 173 02 01, Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Designation and Management Regulations.
CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT: Residential development in which the lots are clustered on a portion of a site so that significant environmental/historical/cultural resources may be preserved or recreational amenities provided. While smaller lot sizes are permitted in a cluster subdivision to preserve open space, the overall density cannot exceed that permitted in the zoning district if the site were developed as a conventional subdivision. See Sect. 9 615 of the Zoning Ordinance.
COMMUNITY BUSINESS CENTERS (CBC): The land classification system category for centers that contain retail, office, residential uses, and parks (including Urban Parks and active recreational/cultural facilities) in a community-scale, pedestrian-oriented setting. These centers typically contain over 1,000,000 square feet of commercial space.
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN: Required under §15.2 2223 of the Code of Virginia, the Comprehensive Plan sets forth the general policies for long term growth in the County and depicts planned development by the type and intensity of use. The Plan must be reviewed by the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors at least once every five years.
CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP): A general character-ization of the planned development of a site. A conceptual development plan is a submission requirement when filing a rezoning application for a P District other than the PRC District.
CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AMENDMENT (CDPA): Application to change a conceptual development plan previously heard by the Planning Commission and approved by the Board of Supervisors.
CONDITIONAL USE: A use that may be located in certain zoning districts provided it will not be detrimental to public health and welfare and not impair the integrity and character of the district. Such uses are conditioned so they will not be unsuitable to the surrounding area or the community at large.
CONDOMINIUM: Ownership of any real property which includes fee simple title to a residence or place of business and undivided ownership, in common with other purchasers, of common elements in the structure including the land and its appurtenances.
CONSERVATION: The restoration, stabilization, management, and wise use of natural and heritage resources for compatible educational, recreational, aesthetic, agricultural and scientific purposes, or environmental protection.
CONSERVATION EASEMENT: A legal mechanism whereby a landowner retains ownership of his/her land, but grants some right(s) to the land to a "holder" that is defined as a charitable organization declared exempt from taxation pursuant to 26 U.S.C.A. § 501 (c) (3). The Code of Virginia, Virginia Conservation Easements Act, § 10.1-1900, authorizes these private, non-profit entities, such as land trusts, to hold easements when the entity has a primary purpose to retain or protect natural or open space, agricultural, forestal, recreational, or open space use; protect natural resources; maintain or enhance air or water quality; preserve historic, architectural or archaeological resources.
CORRIDOR STUDIES: Studies which determine whether there exist a need to be addressed by the project and an analysis of a range of reasonable alternatives with regard to their effectiveness in meeting County transportation goals and objectives, their cost and their direct, indirect and cumulative impacts on the environment, heritage resources, parklands, stable and/or residential neighborhoods, and other social and economic values. The scope and geographic breadth of corridor level studies must be commensurate with the scale of the impact area involved, the size of alternative investments being evaluated, and the magnitude of potential impacts.
COUNTY 2232 REVIEW PROCESS: A public hearing process pursuant to Sect. 15.2-2232 (Formerly Sect. 15.1 456) of the Virginia Code which is used to determine if a proposed public facility not shown on the adopted Comprehensive Plan is in substantial accord with the plan. Specifically, this process is used to determine if the general or approximate location, character and extent of a proposed facility is in substantial accord with the Plan.
COVENANT: A private agreement between the buyer and seller that asserts legal requirements on the use of land. Covenants are most commonly used to place restrictions on the use of all individual lots in a development or to prohibit certain specified activities. Enforcement is via legal action initiated by private individuals.
dBA: The momentary magnitude of sound weighted to approximate the sensitivity of the human ear to certain frequencies; the dBA value describes a sound at a given instant, a maximum sound level or a steady state value. See also Ldn.
DEDICATION: The transfer of property rights from private to public ownership. Land so conveyed to the local government may be used for streets, schools, parks, utilities, etc. The governing body must formally accept the dedication for the transaction to be complete.
DENSITY: Number of dwelling units (du) divided by the gross acreage (ac) of a site being developed in residential use; or, the number of dwelling units per acre (du/ac) except in the PRC District when density refers to the number of persons per acre.
DENSITY BONUS: An increase in the density otherwise allowed in a given zoning district which may be granted under specific provisions of the Zoning Ordinance when a developer provides excess open space, recreation facilities, or affordable dwelling units (ADUs), etc.
DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS: Terms or conditions imposed on a development by the Board of Supervisors (BOS) or the Board of Zoning Appeals (BZA) in connection with approval of a special exception, special permit or variance application or rezoning application in a "P" district. Conditions may be imposed to mitigate adverse impacts associated with a development as well as secure compliance with the Zoning Ordinance and/or conformance with the Comprehensive Plan. For example, development conditions may regulate hours of operation, number of employees, height of buildings, and intensity of development.
DEVELOPMENT PLAN: A graphic representation which depicts the nature and character of the development proposed for a specific land area: information such as topography, location and size of proposed structures, location of streets trails, utilities, and storm drainage are generally included on a development plan. A development plan is a submission requirement for rezoning to the PRC District. A GENERALIZED DEVELOPMENT PLAN (GDP) is a submission requirement for a rezoning application for all conventional zoning districts other than a P District. A development plan submitted in connection with a special exception (SE) or special permit (SP) is generally referred to as an SE or SP plat. A CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP) is a submission requirement when filing a rezoning application for a P District other than the PRC District; a CDP characterizes in a general way the planned development of the site. A FINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (FDP) is a submission requirement following the approval of a conceptual development plan and rezoning application for a P District other than the PRC District; an FDP further details the planned development of the site. See Article 16 of the Zoning Ordinance.
DNL (Ldn): Day night loudness. A weighted average sound pressure level accounting for the variations in noise levels during a 24 hour period, which allows for additional sensitivity to nighttime noise.
EASEMENT: A right to or interest in property owned by another for a specific and limited purpose. Examples: access easement, utility easement, construction easement, etc. Easements may be for public or private purposes.
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CORRIDORS (EQCs): An open space system designed to link and preserve natural resource areas, provide passive recreation and protect wildlife habitat. The system includes stream valleys, steep slopes and wetlands. For a complete definition of EQCs, refer to the Environmental section of the Policy Plan for Fairfax County contained in Vol. 1 of the Comprehensive Plan.
ERODIBLE SOILS: Soils that wash away easily, especially under conditions where stormwater runoff is inadequately controlled. Silt and sediment are washed into nearby streams, thereby degrading water quality.
FINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN: A submission requirement following the approval of a conceptual development plan and rezoning application for a P District other than the PRC District. It further details the planned development of the site.
FINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AMENDMENT: Application to change a previously approved final development plan.
FLOODPLAIN: Those land areas in and adjacent to streams and watercourses subject to periodic flooding; usually associated with environmental quality corridors. The 100 year floodplain drains 70 acres or more of land and has a one percent chance of flood occurrence in any given year.
FLOOR AREA RATIO (FAR): An expression of the amount of development intensity (typically, non residential uses) on a specific parcel of land. FAR is determined by dividing the total square footage of gross floor area of buildings on a site by the total square footage of the site itself.
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION: A system for classifying roads in terms of the character of service that individual facilities are providing or are intended to provide, ranging from travel mobility to land access. Roadway system functional classification elements include Freeways or Expressways which are limited access highways, Other Principal (or Major) Arterials, Minor Arterials, Collector Streets, and Local Streets. Principal arterials are designed to accommodate travel; access to adjacent properties is discouraged. Minor arterials are designed to serve both through traffic and local trips. Collector roads and streets link local streets and properties with the arterial network. Local streets provide access to adjacent properties.
GENERALIZED DEVELOPMENT PLAN: A rezoning application submission requirement for all conventional zoning districts other than a P District.
GEOTECHNICAL REVIEW: An engineering study of the geology and soils of a site which is submitted to determine the suitability of a site for development and recommends construction techniques designed to overcome development on problem soils, e.g., marine clay soils.
GREEN BUILDING: Structures and their associated landscapes that are located, designed, constructed, operated and dismantled in an environmentally responsible manner to minimize short- and long-term negative impacts on the environment and building occupants.
HERITAGE RESOURCES: Structures, sites, objects that reflect the prehistory and history of Fairfax County.
HYDROCARBON RUNOFF: Petroleum products, such as motor oil, gasoline or transmission fluid deposited by motor vehicles which are carried into the local storm sewer system with the stormwater runoff, and ultimately, into receiving streams; a major source of non point source pollution. An oil grit separator is a common hydrocarbon runoff reduction method.
IMPERVIOUS SURFACE: Any land area covered by buildings or paved with a hard surface such that water cannot seep through the surface into the ground.
INFILL: Development on vacant or underutilized sites within an area which is already mostly developed in an established development pattern or neighborhood.
INTENSITY: The magnitude of development usually measured in such terms as density, floor area ratio, building height, percentage of impervious surface, traffic generation, etc. Intensity is also based on a comparison of the development proposal against environmental constraints or other conditions which determine the carrying capacity of a specific land area to accommodate development without adverse impacts.
Ldn: Day night average sound level. It is the twenty four hour average sound level expressed in A weighted decibels; the measurement assigns a "penalty" to night time noise to account for night time sensitivity. Ldn represents the total noise environment which varies over time and correlates with the effects of noise on the public health, safety and welfare.
LEVEL OF SERVICE (LOS): An estimate of the effectiveness of a roadway to carry traffic, usually under anticipated peak traffic conditions. Level of Service efficiency is generally characterized by the letters A through F, with LOS A describing free flow traffic conditions and LOS F describing jammed or grid lock conditions.
LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT (LID): The use of site and subdivision design techniques in coordination with stormwater management engineering to mimic the hydrologic conditions associated with an undeveloped site to the greatest extent practicable.
MALFEASANCE: Unlawful conduct by a public official.
MARINE CLAY SOILS: Soils that occur in widespread areas of the County generally east of Interstate 95. Because of the abundance of shrink swell clays in these soils, they tend to be highly unstable. Many areas of slope failure are evident on natural slopes. Construction on these soils may initiate or accelerate slope movement or slope failure. The shrink swell soils can cause movement in structures, even in areas of flat topography, from dry to wet seasons resulting in cracked foundations, etc. Also known as slippage soils.
MIXED USE: A designation that permits a combination of uses within a single development or district. The development may contain a mix of office buildings, retail establishments, hotels, housing, and related uses.
NON CONFORMING USE: A building or use, lawfully existing on the effective date of the Zoning Ordinance, which does not conform to the regulations of the zoning district in which it is located.
OPEN SPACE: That portion of a site which generally is not covered by buildings, streets, or parking areas. Open space is intended to provide light and air; open space may be function as a buffer between land uses or for scenic, environmental, or recreational purposes.
OPEN SPACE EASEMENT: An easement usually granted to the Board of Supervisors which preserves a tract of land in open space for some public benefit in perpetuity or for a specified period of time. Open space easements may be accepted by the Board of Supervisors, upon request of the land owner, after evaluation under criteria established by the Board. See Open Space Land Act, Code of Virginia, Sections 10.1 1700, et seq.
OVERLAY ZONING DISTRICTS: A zoning tool used to impose additional regulations or restrictions on uses within a specific overlay district. Types of Overlay Districts include Historic District, Airport Noise Impact Overlay District, Sign Control Overlay District, Highway Corridor, Natural Resource, Commercial Revitalization District, and Water Supply Protection Overlay District.
P DISTRICT: A "P" district refers to land that is planned and/or developed as a Planned Development Housing (PDH) District, a Planned Development Commercial (PDC) District or a Planned Residential Community (PRC) District. The PDH, PDC and PRC Zoning Districts are established to encourage innovative and creative design for land development; to provide ample and efficient use of open space; to promote a balance in the mix of land uses, housing types, and intensity of development; and to allow maximum flexibility in order to achieve excellence in physical, social and economic planning and development of a site. Refer to Articles 6 and 16 of the Zoning Ordinance.
PLAT: Detailed drawing that provides the dimensions and locations of structures on a specific parcel of land.
PROFFER: A written condition, which, when offered voluntarily by a property owner and accepted by the Board of Supervisors in a rezoning action, becomes a legally binding condition which is in addition to the zoning district regulations applicable to a specific property. Proffers are submitted and signed by an owner prior to the Board of Supervisors public hearing on a rezoning application and run with the land. Once accepted by the Board, proffers may be modified only by a proffered condition amendment (PCA) application or other zoning action of the Board and the hearing process required for a rezoning application applies. See Sect. 15.2-2303 (formerly 15.1-491) of the Code of Virginia.
PROFFERED CONDITION AMENDMENT (PCA): Application to change a set of conditions accepted by the Board of Supervisors at the time of zoning. A PCA application is subject to public hearing by the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors.
PUBLIC FACILITIES: Infrastructure and facilities necessary to support the services and functions provided by the County government or public utility companies.
PUBLIC FACILITIES MANUAL (PFM): A technical text approved by the Board of Supervisors containing guidelines and standards which govern the design and construction of site improvements incorporating applicable Federal, State and County Codes, specific standards of the Virginia Department of Transportation and the County's Department of Public Works and Environmental Services.
PUBLIC HEARING: A formally announced meeting, open to the public, the express purpose of which is to receive written and oral testimony on specific matters.
PUBLIC RECORD: Documents that are open to inspection by members of the public.
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREA (RMA): That component of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area comprised of lands that, if improperly used or developed, have a potential for causing significant water quality degradation or for diminishing the functional value of the Resource Protection Area. See Fairfax County Code, Ch. 118, Chesapeake Bay Preservation Ordinance.
RESOURCE PROTECTION AREA (RPA): That component of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area comprised of lands at or near the shoreline or water's edge that have an intrinsic water quality value due to the ecological and biological processes they perform or are sensitive to impacts which may result in significant degradation of the quality of state waters. In their natural condition, these lands provide for the removal, reduction or assimilation of sediments from runoff entering the Bay and its tributaries, and minimize the adverse effects of human activities on state waters and aquatic resources. New development is generally discouraged in an RPA. See Fairfax County Code, Ch. 118, Chesapeake Bay Preservation Ordinance.
REVITALIZATION: The renewal and improvement of older commercial and residential areas through any of a series of actions or programs that encourage and facilitate private and public investment. This community investment can include (but is not limited to) activities and programs designed to improve neighborhoods; strengthen existing businesses; attract new businesses; encourage quality renovation and new construction; enhance public spaces and pedestrian amenities; ensure safe, efficient and convenient traffic flow; and contribute to the social and economic vitality of the area.
REZONING: The act of changing the zoning district classification or permitted uses on a parcel of land. Rezoning applications are subject to public hearing by the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors.
RIGHT-OF-WAY (ROW): The area over which a legal right of passage exists; land used for public purposes in association with the construction or provision of public facilities, transportation projects, or other infra-structure.
SCREENING: Landscaping and/or physical barrier erected to mitigate potential incompatibilities between different types of land uses. (See BUFFER)
SITE PLAN: A detailed engineering plan, to scale, depicting the development of a parcel of land and containing all information required by Article 17 of the Zoning Ordinance. Generally, submission of a site plan to DPWES for review and approval is required for all residential, commercial and industrial development except for development of single family detached dwellings. The site plan is required to assure that development complies with the Zoning Ordinance.
SPECIAL EXCEPTION (SE) / SPECIAL PERMIT (SP): Uses, which by their nature, can have an undue impact upon or can be incompatible with other land uses and therefore need a site specific review. After review, such uses may be allowed to locate within given designated zoning districts if appropriate and only under special controls, limitations, and regulations. A special exception is subject to public hearings by the Planning Commission and Board of Supervisors with approval by the Board of Supervisors; a special permit requires a public hearing and approval by the Board of Zoning Appeals. Unlike proffers which are voluntary, the Board of Supervisors or BZA may impose reasonable conditions to assure, for example, compatibility and safety. See Article 8, Special Permits and Article 9, Special Exceptions, of the Zoning Ordinance.
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: Engineering practices that are incorporated into the design of a development in order to mitigate or abate adverse water quantity and water quality impacts resulting from development. Stormwater management systems are designed to slow down or retain runoff to re create, as nearly as possible, the pre development flow conditions.
SUBDIVISION PLAT: The engineering plan for a subdivision of land submitted to DPWES for review and approved pursuant to Chapter 101 of the County Code.
TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD): Compact, pedestrian and biking-friendly, mixed-use development containing medium to high density residential, office and retail uses within walking distance of certain rail transit stations identified in the Area Plans. Well-planned TOD should incorporate good design principles and an appropriate mix of uses around rail transit stations to promote transit usage and create vibrant neighborhood centers at these locations.
TRANSIT STATION AREAS (TSAs): The Land Classification System category for areas adjacent to Metrorail Stations (or other future rapid rail stations) which are directly influenced by the presence of access points to the regional rail system. Generally, Transit Station Areas constitute those lands within a primary and a secondary development area. The primary development area is approximately a 5 7 minute walk of a station entrance. The secondary development area is approximately a 15 minute walk of a station entrance. In addition to these general guidelines, Transit Station Area boundaries are strongly influenced by the area's access characteristics and the relationship of the station to surrounding stable neighborhoods.
TRANSIT TRANSFER CENTER: Facility where public transportation services, usually bus services and sometimes rail service, are coordinated so that passenger transfers are facilitated. Facility typically includes passenger waiting and information areas, bus parking areas, and does not including parking.
TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM): Actions taken to reduce single occupant vehicle automobile trips or actions taken to manage or reduce overall transportation demand in a particular area.
TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS (TMAs): Groups of employers uniting together to work collectively to manage transportation demand in a particular area.
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT (TSM) PROGRAMS: This term is used to describe a full spectrum of actions that may be applied to improve the overall efficiency of the transportation network. TSM programs usually consist of low cost alternatives to major capital expenditures, and may include parking management measures, ridesharing programs, flexible or staggared work hours, transit promotion or operational improvements to the existing roadway system. TSM includes Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures as well as H.O.V. use and other strategies associated with the operation of the street and transit systems.
URBAN DESIGN: An aspect of urban or suburban planning that focuses on creating a desirable environment in which to live, work and play. A well designed urban or suburban environment demonstrates the four generally accepted principles of design: clearly identifiable function for the area; easily understood order; distinctive identity; and visual appeal.
VACATION: Refers to vacation of street or road as an action taken by the Board of Supervisors in order to abolish the public's right of passage over a road or road right of way dedicated by a plat of subdivision. Upon vacation, title to the road right of way transfers by operation of law to the owner(s) of the adjacent properties within the subdivision from whence the road/road right of way originated.
VARIANCE: An application to the Board of Zoning Appeals which seeks relief from a specific zoning regulation such as lot width, building height, or minimum yard requirements, among others. A variance may only be granted by the Board of Zoning Appeals through the public hearing process and upon a finding by the BZA that the variance application meets the required Standards for a Variance set forth in Sect. 18 404 of the Zoning Ordinance.
VERBATIM: A written transcript of a portion or of all comments made during the consideration of a land use application by the Planning Commission.
VIRGINIA BYWAY: A designation given by Virginia's Commonwealth Transportation Board to a roadway which is of historic significant and/or scenic interest or links areas of historic significant and/or scenic interest.
WETLANDS: Land characterized by wetness for a portion of the growing season. Wetlands are generally delineated on the basis of physical characteristics such as soil properties indicative of wetness, the presence of vegetation with an affinity for water, and the presence or evidence of surface wetness or soil saturation. Wetland environments provide water quality improvement benefits and are ecologically valuable. Development activity in wetlands is subject to permitting processes administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
WORKFORCE HOUSING: Rental or for-sale housing units that are affordable to households with maximum income limits up to and including 120 percent of the Area Median Income (AMI) for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, as determined periodically by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The intent of the Workforce housing initiative is to encourage this and other types of affordable housing in the County's planned Mixed-Use Centers. Workforce Housing should be provided in accordance with the guidelines specified in Appendix 1 of the Housing Section of the Policy Plan. In return for proffered Workforce housing units, additional development density or intensity will be made available. Workforce housing should be subject to administrative requirements that are set forth in the Zoning Ordinance and are similar to those of the Affordable Dwelling Unit program.
TIDAL WETLANDS: Vegetated and nonvegetated wetlands as defined in Chapter 116 Wetlands Ordinance of the Fairfax County Code: includes tidal shores and tidally influenced embayments, creeks, and tributaries to the Occoquan and Potomac Rivers. Development activity in tidal wetlands may require approval from the Fairfax County Wetlands Board.
ZONING ORDINANCE: A document adopted by the Board of Supervisors that classifies all land in Fairfax County into residential, commercial, industrial, planned development and/or overlay districts; that describes in detail the permitted density and uses allowed in each zoning district; and that lists the specific regulations that govern each land use.