Fairfax County, Virginia

CONTACT INFORMATION: Our office is open 9AM-5PM M-F

TTY 711

4500 West Ox Road
Fairfax, VA 22030

Dr. Katherine Edwards,
Wildlife Management Specialist

Department Resources


Fairfax County and Virginia Deer Management Programs

Fairfax County Environmental Quality Advisory Council. 2014. Chapter VII-Ecological Resources. 2014 Annual Report on the Environment: 295-352. http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/dpz/eqac/report2014/ecological_resources.pdf


Fairfax County Environmental Quality Advisory Council. 2014. Chapter VIII-Wildlife and the Environment in Fairfax County. 2014 Annual Report on the Environment: 255-406. http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/dpz/eqac/report2014/wildlife_management.pdf


Fairfax County Environmental Quality Advisory Council. 2010. Chapter VIII-1: Impacts of deer in Fairfax County. Annual Report on the Environment Chapter VIII: Wildlife and the Environment in Fairfax County: 277-300. http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/dpz/eqac/report2010/08._wildlife_environment.pdf


Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Wildlife Division.  Virginia Deer Management Plan: 2006 – 2015.  Wildlife Information Publication No. 07-1, June 2007.   http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/deer/management-plan


Knox, M., N. Lafon, and J. Rohm. An open letter to landowners and deer hunters in Bedford, Fairfax, Fauquier, Franklin, Loudoun, Patrick, Prince William, and Roanoke Counties.


Deer Biology

Potapov, E., A. Bedford, F. Bryntesson, S.C. Nyholm, and D. Robertson. 2014. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) suburban habitat use along disturbance gradients. The American Midland Naturalist 171(1):128-138.


Potapov, A., E. Merrill, M. Pybus, D. Coltman, and M.A. Lewis. 2012. Chronic wasting disease: possible transmission mechanisms in deer. Ecological Modeling 250:244-257.


Sachs, J.S. 2010.  A Dose of Diversity - Scientists are discovering that species extinctions fuel the rise and spread of infectious diseases and hinder medical research.  National Wildlife Federation.



Stolzenburg, W.  2008.  Where the wild things were: life, death, and ecological wreckage in a land of vanishing predators.  Bloomsbury, New York. 


McShea, W. J., H. B. Underwood, J. H. Rappole, eds.  1997.  The science of overabundance – deer ecology and population management.  Smithsonian Books, Washington. 


McCullough, D. R. 1979. The George Reserve deer herd: population ecology of a K selected species. Ann Arbor Univ. Michigan Press. 271 pp.


Caring for Deer & Forests- a Resource Center for Eastern North America


Deer Population Concerns/Issues

Deer/Vehicle Accidents

Lobo, N. and J.S. Millar. 2013. Summer roadside use by white-tailed deer and mule deer in the Rocky Mountains, Alberta. Northwestern Naturalist 94(2): 137-146.

DeNicola, A. J., and S. C. Williams. 2008.  Sharpshooting suburban white-tailed deer reduces deer-vehicle collisions. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 2(1):28-33, Spring 2008. 


Huijser, M.P., P. McGowen, J. Fuller, A. Hardy, A. Kociolek, A.P. Clevenger, D. Smith and R. Ament.  2008. Wildlife-vehicle collision reduction study – report to Congress.  Report No. FHWA-HRT-08-034. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.  http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/08034/index.cfm


McShea, W. J., C.M. Stewart, L.J. Kearns, S. Liccioli, D. Kocka.  2008. Factors affecting autumn deer–vehicle collisions in a rural Virginia county. Human–Wildlife Conflicts 2(1):110–121, Spring 2008. Also see several other articles devoted to deer/vehicle accidents in this issue of Human-Wildlife Conflicts.

Deer Vehicle Crash Information Clearinghouse


Rutberg, A. T., and R. E. Naugle. 2008. Deer–vehicle collision trends at a suburban immunocontraception site.  Human–Wildlife Conflicts 2(1):60–67, Spring 2008.

COG Animal Services Committee Wildlife, Vehicle Collision Reduction Working Group.  2006.  Deer-vehicle collision report. September 2006. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments.  http://www.mwcog.org/uploads/pub-documents/y1lYWA20061030150157.pdf


Environmental Impact

Jenkins, L. H., M. A. Jenkins, C.R. Webster, P.A. Zollner, and J.M. Sheilds. 2014. Herbaceous layer response to 17 years of controlled deer hunting in forested natural areas. Biological Conservation 175:119-128.

Bressette, J.W., H. Beck, and V.B. Beauchamp. 2012. Beyond the browse line: complex cascade effects mediated by white-tailed deer. Oikos 121(11): 1749-1760.

Greenwald, K. R., U.J. Petit, and T.A. Waite. 2008. Indirect effects of a keystone herbivore elevate local animal diversity. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(6):1318–1321.


Rawinski, T.J., 2008.  Impacts of white-tailed deer overabundance in forest ecosystems:  an overview.  Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.  http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/special_interests/white_tailed_deer.pdf


Gorsira, B., C. R. Rossell, Jr, and S. Patch.  2006.  Effects of white-tailed deer on vegetation structure and woody seedling composition at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia.  ParkScience, 24:1, Summer 2006.  Natural Resource Program Center, National Park Service.  http://www.nature.nps.gov/ParkScience/index.cfm?ArticleID=48


Latham, R. E., J. Beyea, M. Benner, C. A. Dunn, M. A. Fajvan, R. R. Freed, M. Grund, S. B. Horsley, A. F. Rhoads and B. P. Shissler. 2005. Managing white-tailed deer in forest habitat from an ecosystem perspective: Pennsylvania case study. Report by the Deer Management Forum for Audubon Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania Habitat Alliance, Harrisburg, PA.

Rossell Jr., C.R., B. Gorsira, and S. Patch. 2005. Effects of white-tailed deer on vegetation and wood seedling composition in three forest types on the Piedmont Plateau. Forest Ecology and Management 210: 415-424.


Horsley, S.B., S.L. Stout, and D.S. DeCalesta. 2003.  White-tailed deer impact on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest.  Ecological Applications 13(1): 98-118. http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/warren/aboutus/pdf/Horsley%20et%20al%20-%202003.pdf


McShea, W. J. and J. H. Rappole. 2000. Managing the abundance and diversity of breeding bird populations through manipulation of deer populations. Conservation Biology 14:1161-1170.


Lyme disease

Kilpatrick, H. J., A. M. Labonte, and K. C. Stafford, III. 2014. The relationship between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in a residential community. Journal of Medical Entomology 51(4):777-784.


Ostfeld, R. S. 2011. Lyme disease – The ecology of a complex system. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.


Stafford, K. C. III. 2007. The Tick Management Handbook – An integrated guide for homeowners, pest control operators, and public health officials for the prevention of tick-associated disease, Revised Edition.  Bulletin No. 1010, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. http://www.ct.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/publications/bulletins/b1010.pdf


U.S. Communicable Disease Center: Lyme Disease


Deer Management Tools

Non-lethal Control Methods

Rutberg, A. T., R. E. Naugle, and F. Verret. 2013. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(4):75–83.

Boulanger, J.R., P.D. Curtis, E.G. Cooch, and A.J. DeNicola. 2012. Sterlization as an alternative deer control technique: a review. Human-Wildlife Interactions 6(2): 273 -282. http://canuck.dnr.cornell.edu/research/pubs/pdf/sterile-review.pdf


Rutberg, A. T., and R. Naugle. 2012. Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland: 2012 Progress Report. The Humane Society of the United States.


Gionfriddo, J. P., A. J. DeNicola, and K. A. Fagerstone. 2011. Efficacy of GnRH immunocontraception of wild white-tailed deer in New Jersey. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:142-148.


Gionfriddo, J. P., J. D. Eisemann, K. J. Sullivan, R. S. Healey, L. A. Miller, K. A. Fagerstone, R. M. Engeman, and C. A. Yoder. 2009. Field test of a single-injection gonadotrophin-releasing hormone immunocontraceptive vaccine in female white-tailed deer. Wildlife Research 36:177-184.


Predl, S., C. Kandoth, J. Buck, eds. 2009. An evaluation of deer management options. The New England Chapter of the Wildlife Society and The Northeast Deer Technical Committee. http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/deer/deer-management-options.asp


Rutberg, A. T., and R. E. Naugle.  2008.  Population-level effects of immunocontraception in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Wildlife Research 35(6) 494–501.


Rutberg, A. T. 2007. Birth control is not of everyone: a response. Human–Wildlife Conflicts 1(2):143-144. 

Miller, L.A., J. Rhyan and G. Killian. 2004. GonaCon, a versatile GnRH contraceptive for a large variety of pest animal problems. Proc.21st Vertebr. Pest Conf. (R.M. Timm and W.P. Forenzel, Eds) Univ. Calif. Davis. pp. 269-273.


Naugle, R. E., A.T. Rutberg, H.B. Underwood, J.W. Turner Jr.,  and I.K.M. Liu. 2002. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA. Reproduction Supplement 60:143–153.


Lethal Control Methods

Predl, S., C. Kandoth, J. Buck, eds. 2009. An evaluation of deer management options. The New England Chapter of the Wildlife Society and The Northeast Deer Technical Committee. https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/deer/deer-management-options/

Pedersen, M. A., S.M. Berry, and J.C. Bossart. 2008. Wounding rates of white-tailed deer with modern archery equipment.  Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildlife Agencies 62:31-34.  

Fulton, D.C., K. Skerl, E.M. Shank, and D.W. Lime. 2004. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4): 1166-1176.

Kilpatrick, H.J., A.M. LaBonte, and J.T. Seymour. 2002. A shotgun-archery deer hunt in a residential community: evaluation of hunt strategies and effectiveness. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2): 478-486.

DeNicola, A. J., K. C. VerCauterren, P. D. Curtis, and S. E. Hygnstrom. 2000. Managing white-tailed deer in suburban environments: A technical guide. Cornell Coop. Ext., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 52pp.   http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/deer/

McDonald, J. E., M. R. Ellingwood and G. M. Vecellio. 1998. Case studies in controlled deer hunting. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. 16pp.

Kilpatrick, H.J., and W.D. Walter. 1999. A controlled archery deer hunt in a residential community: cost, effectiveness, and deer recovery rates. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27(1): 115-123.

Ellingwood, M. R., and S. L. Caturano. 1996. An evaluation of deer management options. Publication No. DR-11. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Concord, NH.

Deblinger, R. D., D. W. Rimmer, J. J. Vaske, and G. M. Vecellio. 1995. Efficiency of controlled, limited hunting at the Crane Reservation in Ipswich, Massachusetts. in J.B. McAninch, ed. Urban deer: a manageable resource? Proc. Symposium 55th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, 12-14 December 1993, St. Louis, Mo. North Central Section of The Wildlife Society.


Community Programs

Fairfield County, CT, Municipal Deer Management Alliance

DeNicola, A. J., K. C. VerCauterren, P. D. Curtis, and S. E. Hygnstrom. 2000. Managing white-tailed deer in suburban environments: A technical guide. Cornell Cooperative Extension, the Wildlife Society- Wildlife Damage Management Working Group, and the Northeast Wildlife Damage Research and Outreach Cooperative.  http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/deer/

Fairfax Virtual Assistant